So the only icon not "solved" is the little yellow thing on this card above the faction icon.
And the icons at the top of the planet cards.
The character card one might be "shields" which was briefly mentioned in the article (can discard to prevent damage): "A host of special abilities, keywords, and event cards allow both players to modify combat. In addition, attacks can be shielded by discarding a card with shield icons from your hand to reduce the damage dealt to your unit."
The icons at the top of planets are what you have to match 3 of to win via conquering stuff: "Each planet possesses one or more symbols in the upper left-hand corner, identifying that planet’s strategic value, whether military, economic, or technological...These symbols have no inherent abilities, but the first player to conquer three planets that share a common symbol claims dominion of the sector and wins the game!"